SMU Appendix 16

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A Study of the Master Universe: Appendices
A Development of Concepts in The Urantia Book


Bill Sadler (William S. Sadler, Jr.)

Table of Contents for This Study

Appendix 16: Physical Space And Mass Magnitudes Of The Master Universe



The Papers give just enough information about the physical size of creation to allow us to make some reasonable calculations of the magnitude of the master universe. The calculations made in this Appendix are based on two groups of data: (1) Information pertaining to distances - space magnitudes, and (2) Information pertaining to physical creations - mass magnitudes.

Information Pertaining to Distances: Space Magnitudes


[32:2.11] The radius of the superuniverse of Orvonton is a little less than 250,000 light-years.

Then, the transverse diameter of Orvonton (the horizontal distance from the outer border to the inner border) is twice the radius, or 500,000 light-years.

[12:1.9] Between the superuniverses and the Primary Space Level there is a quiet zone that averages around 400,000 light-years in width.

(ibid.) Around one-half million light-years from the periphery of the superuniverses, there is a zone of energy activity that grows in ". . . intensity for over 25 million light-years." This is all in the first outer space level.

If this zone increases in intensity for over 25 million light-years, then it is logical to deduce that it decreases in intensity for another 25 million light-years. This means that the transverse diameter of the first outer space level is on the order of 50 million light-years.

[12:1.10] More than 50 million light-years beyond the activities of the Primary Space Level, the Uversa physicists have observed still greater energy activities. These are preliminary to the physical development of the second outer space level.

Information Pertaining to Physical Creations: Mass Magnitudes


[citation needed] Havona plus its dark gravity bodies is more massive than all seven superuniverses. This is due to the enormous mass of these encircling dark gravity bodies.

[12:3.4] About 95 percent of the present gravity action of the Isle of Paradise is occupied with the control of physical systems outside of the grand universe.

The figure of 95 percent is not altogether reliable in comparing the physical size of the outer space levels with the physical size of the grand universe. This is because of the high concentration of mass in the dark gravity bodies encircling the central universe. Were these dark gravity bodies left out of the calculation, then the figure of 95 percent would be even larger.

Furthermore, the mass of the grand universe is much more of a finished physical creation than are the newly organizing universes of outer space. The passing of time will further increase the figure of 95 percent.

[31:10.12] There are at least 70,000 physical aggregations in outer space and each one is larger than a superuniverse.

[citation needed] Someday our astronomers will see no less than 375 million new galaxies in the remote stretches of outer space."

There is a question as to whether these two statements refer to the same masses, or to different physical creations. In this study, we will assume that the 70,000 aggregations are all in the Primary Space Level and that these are the major groupings which embrace the 375 million galaxies. A superficial consideration of this data might suggest that the 375 million galaxies could be in the Secondary Space Level; but if they were, then we could never see them. Our telescopes cannot see across Orvonton, because of the dust in space, and this is only one-half million light-years. How could we ever hope to see across the Primary Space Level; it is 50 million light-years across.

1. Magnitude Of The Grand Universe

It appears that the transverse (horizontal) diameter of the superuniverse space level is on the order of one-half million light-years. If we want to determine the radius of the grand universe we should increase this figure by an amount equal to the radius of Havona. (The radius of Havona, plus the transverse diameter of a superuniverse, should equal the radius of the grand universe - the distance from the center of all things to the periphery of the superuniverses.)

There are two problems that seriously hamper our calculations at this point:

  • (a) If we attempt to go all the way in to the "center of all things" we will be going inside the inner margins of space, itself. The Isle of Paradise is at the center of all things, and Paradise is not in space.
  • (b) The Papers give no information whatsoever concerning the size of the central universe.

What would happen if we chose to ignore Havona in these calculations? How does the space area of Havona compare with that of a superuniverse -say, Orvonton. We know that Havona contains one billion worlds and that Orvonton will eventually contain 1,000 billion inhabited worlds - and this takes into account none of the myriads of uninhabited space bodies: blazing suns, cold and airless satellites, dark islands, and so on. And then again, the Havona worlds follow each other in an orderly linear progression in seven circuits; such a systematic processional could be arranged rather compactly in space as compared with the more ample room required in Orvonton to accommodate the sometimes wild gyrations of the disintegrating nebulae. Orvonton must be much more than 1,000 times the size (or space volume) of Havona; but if it were only 1,000 times the size, then the radius of Havona would be only one-tenth of one-percent of the transverse diameter of Orvonton.

This being the case, it does seem reasonable to ignore Havona in calculating the radius of the grand universe. But, if we are in error,, even if Havona is much larger in space than we have estimated, we will shortly see that any such factor of error will be insignificant in view of the very large magnitudes we will soon encounter.

We will, accordingly, assume that the diameter of the grand universe is on the order of one million light-years, and that its radius is around one-half million light-years.

Since we are going to encounter much larger numbers than these, it will prove very convenient to start right now to symbolize these distances.

Suppose we assign a scale value of two inches to the diameter, and one inch to the radius of the grand universe. Although this volume of space is not a sphere, we may choose to think of it as a sphere to simplify our concept. We are now thinking of a sphere with a diameter of two inches. This could be an undersized tennis ball.

If in addition to the two inches of the grand universe we assign a scale value of one inch to the diameter of Havona, it would mean the grand universe would be scaled at three inches instead of two, and its radius would be one-and-a-half inches instead of one inch.

2. Magnitude Of The Primary Space Level


(In these calculations we elect to ignore the semi-quiet zone that separates the grand universe from the first outer space level.)

If the transverse radius of the grand universe is 500,000 light-years, and that of the Primary Space Level is 50 million light-years, then we have a relationship of one-to-one-hundred on a linear basis. In other words, if we symbolize the radius of the grand universe by assigning to it the value of one inch, then, on the same scale, we must go out one hundred inches to symbolize the transverse diameter of the first outer space level. This is approximately the relationship of one inch to eight feet.

The cubic relationship is even more striking. We have, for purposes of visualization, scaled the volume of the grand universe as comparable to an undersized tennis ball, a sphere with a diameter of two inches. The radius of the grand universe plus the first outer space level would scale at 101 inches - 100 inches plus one inch. The diameter of this volume of space would equal twice the radius, or 202 inches. This is approximately 16 feet.

We may now visualize our tennis ball suspended in the middle of a fair-sized room, a room measuring 16 feet by 16 feet, and having a ceiling 16 feet high. A room that is 16 feet square will hold quite a number of people, and with the high ceiling, how many tennis balls will it hold?

We can be rather sure at this point that the Primary Space Level is very much larger than the grand universe - the seven superuniverses plus Havona. There are ten Master Architects operating in the grand universe (three in Havona and seven in the superuniverses.) There are seventy Architects functioning in the Primary Space Level, but their scope of function must be very much larger than the space-range of the function of the grand universe Architects.

The mass magnitudes in outer space will support these estimates. Here there are 70,000 aggregations of matter and each is already larger than a superuniverse. And these domains are just getting started, from a physical standpoint. Ninety-five percent of Paradise gravity is already occupied with the control of these and other outer space physical systems. As these creations continue to grow in size, it would appear inevitable that more than 99 percent of Paradise gravity will be required to exercise physical control.

3. Magnitude Of The Secondary Space Level


In attempting to calculate the magnitude of the second outer space level we encounter an unknown factor. We have established a ratio of one-to-one hundred in comparing the radius of the grand universe to the transverse diameter of the first outer space level. The Papers give no dimensions concerning the Secondary Space Level, they merely state that still greater energy activities are going on around 50 million light-years beyond the first outer space level. This lack of information necessitates our making some assumptions: We know the space levels increase in size as we proceed outward, but, what is the rate of increase? Is it a constant rate, or is it an accelerating rate of increase? We elect to choose the more conservative assumption, we will assume that the rate of increase is a constant one.

If the rate of increase is constant, then we can set down a double ratio: the ratio of the radius of the grand universe to the transverse diameter of the first outer space level, and the ratio of the latter to the transverse diameter of the second outer space level. This ratio is: 1 is to 100, as 100 is to 10,000. In terms of our "scale inches" we can illustrate this as follows: If the grand universe extends out from the center a distance of one inch, and, if the Primary Space Level extends beyond for one hundred inches, then the Secondary Space Level goes out for an additional 10,000 inches. This is about the relationship of one inch to eight feet, and of eight feet to 800 feet.

If the transverse diameter of the second outer space level is 800 feet, then the radius of the total universe, from the center to the periphery of the Secondary Space Level would be symbolized by 800 feet, plus eight feet and one inch. If we choose to ignore the two smaller distances we may say that the diameter of the total universe, considered thus far, is on the order of twice 800 feet; this would be 1,600 feet.

To what object of familiar size may we compare this distance of 1,600 feet? Well, it is about the size of a rather long city block. Try to visualize such a block; it has sixteen 100-foot lots on each side, quite comfortable sites for a home. Now, try to visualize this 1,600 -foot city block as a cube. Remember that it is a rather long block, and 1,600 feet is quite a distance up in the air. With this in mind, suspend the old-fashioned living room at the center of the cubic city block; this is a 16-foot cube suspended at the center of a 1,600-foot cube. Now, float the tennis ball in the middle of the living room. We are visualizing the space relationships of the second outer space level (the city block) to the first outer space level (the living room) and to the grand universe (the tennis ball).

4. Magnitude Of The Tertiary Space Level


If we supply the fourth member of our one-to-one-hundred expanding space ratio, we will have, in terms of "scale inches," the following: one inch is to eight feet, as eight feet is to 800 feet, and as 800 feet is to 80,000 feet. Suppose we make this last number a little more manageable by converting it to miles. We can keep it conveniently even by dividing by 5,000 feet (instead of 5,280 feet) and this will give us a distance of 16 miles. This means that the transverse diameter of the Tertiary Space Level is symbolized by a distance of 16 miles.

If this is the case, then the diameter of the total universe we have considered up to this point is approximately twice 16 miles, or 32 miles. How can we attempt to visualize a 32-mile cube? Well, we might try to think of a rather large city that had a surface area measuring 32 miles by 32 miles, and then, try to project this surface 32 miles high. This cubic city is to the 1,600-foot city block, as the Tertiary Space Level is to the Secondary. And inside the block we still have the living room (the Primary Space Level), and inside the living room we still have the tennis ball (the grand universe).

5. Magnitude Of The Quartan Space Level


We have finally come to the estimation of the size of the outermost space level. Again we may apply the relationship of one-to-one-hundred and continue the ratio to the fourth comparison: one inch is to eight feet, as eight feet is to 800 feet, as 800 feet is to 16 miles, and as 16 miles is to 1,600 miles.

If, in terms of our "scale inches," the transverse diameter of the fourth outer space level is 1,600 miles and, if we entirely ignore the diameters of the smaller and inner space levels, then we may say that the total diameter of the entire master universe must be on the order of twice 1,600 miles, or 3,200 miles.

(Just to check, let us see what has been ignored when we did not consider the distances relative to the smaller and inner space levels. We start with one inch, add it to eight feet and have a distance of eight feet and one inch. Then add 800 feet, and we have 808 feet and one inch; this is something less than one-fifth of a mile. To this is added 16 miles and we have 16-1/5 miles. To derive the diameter, we double the number and come up with something less than 33 miles. This is only a trifle more than one percent of 3,200 miles. Our estimates are on the order of 99 percent accurate, even when we ignore the smaller dimensions.)

How can we best visualize a space volume of 3,200 miles in diameter? The space body that most nearly approaches this in size is the earth's moon. The moon has a diameter of around 2,100 miles and we are trying to visualize a sphere of 3,200 miles. If the moon were about 50 percent larger, it would be just the right size.

When we think of our (32-mile) cubic city at the center of the moon, we are trying to feel the relationship of the Tertiary Space Level to the Quartan. And inside the cubic city, we still have the block, the living room, and the tennis ball.

6. A Summary Of Space Magnitudes


It will be helpful to recapitulate the ratio in which was computed the transverse diameters of the space levels of the master universe:

The Space Level The Ratio The Scale
The Grand Universe 1 1 inch
The Primary Space Level 100 8 feet
The Secondary Space Level 10,000 800 feet
The Tertiary Space Level 1,000,000 16 miles
The Quartan Space Level 100,000,000 1,600 miles

When this data is recapitulated on a volume basis, then the above numbers must be doubled to arrive at the diameters of the volumes concerned. We may recapitulate volume relationships as follows:

  • The Grand Universe: An undersized tennis ball.
  • The Primary Space Level: A 16-foot living room.
  • The Secondary Space Level: A cubic 1,600-foot city block.
  • The Tertiary Space Level: A cubic 32-mile city.
  • The Quartan Space Level: A 3,200-mile satellite, a larger moon.

Most of what the Papers have to say concerns the events of the Second Universe Age and the grand universe. The outer universes of the future ages are of altogether different, and greater magnitudes. The experiential emergence of the Supreme is a function of the grand universe; the emergence of the Ultimate requires all of this plus the additional development of the four outer space levels.